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Many of Hal Levin's papers and presentations can be freely downloaded from and

What Counts as Green? And Why
MIxS-BE: a MIxS extension defining a minimum information standard for sequence data from the built environment
Indoor Environmental Quality Research Roadmap 2012–2030: Energy-Related Priorities
Indoor Environmental Quality: Research Roadmap 2012–2030: Energy-Related Priorities is the final report for the Indoor Environmental Quality Research Roadmap project 500-02-026, work authorization number MR-026 conducted by University of California at Riverside. The information from this project contributes to PIER’s Energy-Related Environmental Research Program.
Natural Ventilation: A Sustainable Solution to Infection Control in Healthcare Settings?
Describes some of the key issues in the use of natural ventilation to control infection in healthcare settings.
Indoor Climate and Climate Change
The connections between climate change and indoor climate are strong but not generally recognized. Climate change impacts local and regional atmospheric conditions including air quality and thermal conditions. Building climate control must respond to local climate and air quality to protect human health and support buildings’ functional uses.
The Big Indoor Air Emission Threat – Secondary Emissions
Substantial progress has been made understanding volatile organic chemical (VOC) emissions from indoor sources including building materials, furnishing, and some cleaning and maintenance products. During the past two decades, emissions from building materials and other sources have declined significantly in many developed countries. Researchers have begun to understand the potentially larger health threat posed by secondary emission, the chemicals formed by the interactions between oxidants in indoor air and chemicals on surfaces, and by hydrolysis. Many of the by-products of these interactions are more irritating, odorous, or toxic and may pose a far greater health hazard than the chemicals from which they are formed. Building materials, cleaning products, and many consumer products contain chemicals that react with oxidants to form formaldehyde and other, higher molecular weight aldehydes, acidic aerosols, and fine or ultrafine particles. Researchers have identified some of the most important indoor sources that combine with ozone (O3) at common indoor concentrations to form these secondary products. The fundamental processes and critical building material and cleaning products have been identified along with recommendations for minimizing occupant exposure to hazardous chemicals resulting from indoor air chemistry and secondary emissions. Exposure to harmful secondary emissions can be reduced to improve indoor air quality
Microbial Ecology Exemplifies Building Ecology
Recent advances in molecular methods have dramatically improved knowledge of the microbial communities and their diversity in indoor environments. We have retrieved over 150 references with results of indoor microbial investigations and environmental factors. Representative papers are summarized here. The results show that buildings are complex, ecosystem-like, and that collaboration between microbial ecologists and indoor environment scientists is an important emerging trend that will help us understand building ecology.
Building Ecology - A short course
It is common to assume that buildings are simply inanimate physical entities, relatively stable over time. This implies that there is little interaction between the triad of the building, what’s in it (occupants and contents), and what’s around it( the larger environment). We commonly see the overwhelming majority of the mass of material in a building as relatively unchanged physical material over time. In fact, the true nature of buildings can be viewed as the result of a complex set of dynamic interactions among their physical, chemical, and biological dimensions. Buildings can be described and understood as complex systems. Research applying the approaches ecologists use to the understanding of ecosystems can help increase our understanding.[1] “Building ecology “ is proposed here as the application of those approaches to the built environment considering the dynamic system of buildings, their occupants, and the larger environment.
Calculating Buildings' Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Increased concern about climate change has led many building designers throughout the world to focus on reducing energy use in buildings. It is often assumed that energy use is more or predictive of greenhouse gas GHG) emissions However, there are numerous time-dependent variations in building energy use and electric grid operation that result in important differences between the quantity of energy used and the related GHG emissions. These differences are not generally considered or even recognized by most designers or even regulators and others who are now striving to develop a carbon neutral economy. Efforts have begun to recognize the important factors that determine a building’s GHG emissions based on its energy use, but these efforts are still in the preliminary stages. This paper identifies some of the important factors that affect the estimation of GHG emissions based on energy use data from simulations during design or from actual energy meters or purchases. These differences are being considered in a new effort to develop a tool that will more accurately predict building GHG emissions based on design alternatives, thus allowing design professionals to improve the GHG emission performance of their buildings.
Why Green Building rating systems are almost always wrong about IAQ
Presentation by Hal Levin at ASHRAE Winter Meeting, Chicago, January 2012.
What's a Green Material? Many Views, Questions, and Issues
What does "green" mean? Who decides?
National Programs to Assess IEQ Effects of Building Materials and Products
Background: Building materials, interior furnishings, surface treatments, paints, coatings and consumer products have been shown to contribute to indoor contaminants. Currently, information on potential hazards of these chemicals prior to specification, purchase or use of these products is limited. Except for a few cases, regulations to limit or prevent exposures to product-related emissions do not exist in the US. There have been several recent circumstances where introduction of new materials/products have resulted in wide scale exposures followed by research examining potential harmful effects.
Moving Beyond TVOC - Reasons to avoid the use of TVOC as Pass/Fail criterion for assessing VOC emissions from products
by Al Hodgson, Co-founder and Research Director, Berkeley Analytical Associates
Cement Sequesters CO₂: Wouldn’t it be lovely?
Cement is one of the most carbon emissions intensive parts of today’s buildings, and more often than not, one of the most widely used materials in pure mass per unit of floor area. Cement manufacturing is estimated responsible for 5% of global CO₂ emissions.
IAQ and Plants
The idea that plants clean indoor air is a sad, continuing saga fed by bad science, commercial interests, and wishful thinking.
Lessons Learned from Product Testing, Source Evaluation, and Air Sampling from a Five-Building Sustainable Office Complex
This paper discusses the variability in measured ventilation rates and concentrations of measured chemicals, the time course of emissions of some chemicals, and the relative contributions of the building materials versus the occupants and their activities.
Target Resources and Emissions Budgets for Healthy and Sustainable Buildings - slideshow
Sustainable buildings are more than an assortment of "green building" features. Building design and actual performance must be compared to benchmarks or targets for a truly sustainable environment in terms of resource consumption and pollution emission.
Sustainable Buildings: The Low Energy Path to Good Indoor Air Quality
As we attempt to improve the indoor climate (air, thermal, illumination, and acoustic quality) in buildings, we run up against the constraints of resource availability and the effects of their use. In particular, we are challenged to find ways to ventilate, heat, cool, illuminate buildings with minimal consumption of energy.
Climate-Change Mitigation: Challenges and Opportunities in California's Residential Building Sector
How buildings are built and operated strongly affects atmospheric CO₂ levels and the associated threat of climate change. Today; global average fossil CO₂ emissions are approximately 3 kgC per person per day.
Welcome to intends to be the best source on the web for reliable, up-to-date information for all concerned about Indoor Air Quality and Sustainable Buildings.
Design for Multiple Environmental Factors
Design of indoor environments should minimize occupant discomfort, irritation, and illness.
Design and Construction of Healthy and Sustainable Buildings
Considerable progress has been made during the past thirty years toward a more complete understanding of design and construction requirements for “healthy” buildings.
National Expenditures for IAQ Problem Prevention or Mitigation
A preliminary estimate of expenditures for indoor air quality problem prevention and mitigation activities in U.S. buildings was developed to provide useful information on how concern for indoor air quality is affecting economic decision-making. Expenditure data were converted to 2003 dollars using the Department of Labor’s Consumer Price Index.
Building Ecology: An Architect's Perspective on Healthy Buildings
A healthy building is one that adversely affects neither the health of its occupants nor the larger environment. Indoor air quality (IAQ) concerns are among many indoor environmental issues that must be addressed to avoid adverse impacts on occupants’ health and well being.
IAQ: Indoor Environmental Quality - Current Concerns
Buildings are increasingly designed or required to be “sustainable” or “green” in recent years giving the quality of the indoor environment new importance. The indoor environment is central to public health because we spend so much time there. Concentrations of most pollutants are higher indoors, often as much as ten or more times higher than in outdoor air.
Sustainable Buildings
“Sustainability” has been defined variously, as was clearly illustrated at the recent United Nations Earth Summit in Johannesburg. When discussed in the context of the impacts of buildings on the environment, its meaning is ambiguous and often distorted.
Integrating Indoor Air and Design for Sustainability
Integration of IAQ concerns in so-called sustainable designs has suffered from a lack of a comprehensive, science-based assessment methodology for building environmental performance. Guidance and rating systems for “green” buildings fail to address systematically the trade-offs necessary for assessment of the overall performance of a building or its design.
Sustainable Buildings: Environmental Impacts of Technologies for Sustainable Buildings
There are many consequences of measures taken to move toward sustainability in the creation of healthy buildings. Technologies aimed at improving indoor environmental quality must be evaluated in terms of their total environmental impacts: indoor, local, regional, and global.
IEQ: Designing for People: What Do Building Occupants Really Want?
Modern buildings’ environmental impacts threaten global environmental health. Population growth and increased access to and use of current building technology are not sustainable. People are often not in control of their building environments and, as a result, are less satisfied with them.
Commercial Building Indoor Air Quality: Introduction to the Problem
This paper provides a background on the issue of indoor air quality.
Calculating Greenhouse gas emissions from buildings
Most calculations in the U.S. and throughout the world are based on an average annual value for the grid region, sub-region, or nation as a whole. Looking at the annual reporting under the UNFCC, there is a huge range of values used for conversion of electric consumption to GHG emissions, and some of the values are clearly highly inaccurate. Even where reasonably accurate annual average values are used, they do not reflect the variations in building operation in response to weather and over the course of the day, week, and year.
VOC Concentrations of Interest in North American Offices and Homes
Indoor air quality investigators often sample many volatile organic chemicals but with insufficient knowledge of their potential impacts on occupants. Studies performed in North American offices and residences since 1990 were reviewed and central tendency and maximum VOC concentrations were summarized by building type.
Indoor Source Emissions Testing: State of the Science and the Art
The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of building materials emissions testing and its place in indoor air and to identify the major issues that remain to be resolved. The focus will be on major accomplishments, critical issues, and current challenges.
Designing Healthy Houses and Cities: The Roles of Architects and Science
A “healthy building” was defined as one that is harmful neither to its occupants nor to the larger environment (Levin, 1995a). This, in fact, is an inadequate definition, focusing only on one requirement, that there be an absence of unhealthy conditions or influences.
ASHRAE Announces Initiative to Tighten Standard 90.1 by 2010, Energy Standards for Buildings
ASHRAE announced that it is striving to increase building energy efficiency in Standard 90.1. It is looking to achieve a 30 percent saving in the 2010 standard compared to ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.
Integrating Indoor Air Quality Considerations Into Materials Life Cycle Assessment
Buildings design professionals and their clients are increasingly interested in the environmental performance of their designs. So-called "life cycle assessments" (LCAs) have been done on some building materials. Most LCA practitioners have either ignored indoor air quality (IAQ) or stated that integration of IAQ into LCA practice is either impractical or infeasible. A "building ecology" approach to design, construction, and operation of buildings demands inclusion of IAQ in LCAs of building materials and products.
IAQ: Practical ways building designers address indoor air quality issues?
There are many simple, practical ways for building designers to address IAQ issues. These include application of relevant ASTM and ASHRAE standards with a focus on material selection guidelines and adequate ventilation. When good materials are selected and properly specified, ventilation requirements are reduced and the capital and operating costs of the building are reduced.
National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)
The EPA Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) has set National Ambient Air Quality Standards for six principal pollutants, which are called "criteria" pollutants.
Can House Plants Solve IAQ Problems?
The idea of common plants solving IAQ problems is attractive. Most people like having plants in their homes and offices and in the hotels, stores, and public buildings they visit. However, important questions exist as to whether plants can actually affect indoor air sufficiently to warrant their use as air cleaners.
Bill Clinton on greening buildings at Greenbuild 2007
At the U.S. Green Building Council's annual conference, Greenbuild 2007, Bill Clinton presented the keynote address focusing on green buildings and climate change.
Let's pick the biggest, lowest hanging fruit!
Roughly 70% of all workers in the United States travel to work in single occupancy motor vehicles. It seems to me that this is one of the lowest hanging pieces of fruit on the tree of opportunity. Perhaps the only lower one is the wastefulness of energy use in buildings.
IAQ: US EPA BASE study data available on the web
Do you want to know how your building is doing? EPA collected extensive indoor air quality data from 100 randomly selected public and commercial office buildings in 37 cities and 25 states. You can compare measurements made in your own building to those in this massive, scientifically-based study to identify how your building compares.
Development of Guidelines for Healthy Home Construction in the United States and Challenges Faced in the Process
In the past decade the general population in the USA has developed a heightened awareness on indoor air quality (IAQ) issues. As a result there is a significant demand by the public for housing provisions that offer not only a comfortable living environment, but also one that is more conducive to improved health afforded by the quality of the indoor air environment. The American Lung Association (ALA) in the United States is responding to the needs of homeowners by undertaking the development of guidelines for builders, designers, and other members of the construction community, with the end-goal to provide guidance on construction practices for improved IAQ in residences.
Climate Change: Kofi Annan's Comments in Nairobi
By Kofi Annan, Former Secretary General of the United Nations
Solar energy conversion -- The handy reference guide to solar energy
Do you want to know the potential for solar energy to solve our energy needs as well as eliminate greenhouse gas emissions? Bill McDonough closed his keynote lecture at GreenBuild 2006 in Denver with a comment about our (Earth’s) own nuclear power plant, 93 million miles away. Yes, of course it’s the sun.
The Right to Healthy Indoor Air
A WHO Working Group was convened to agree on a set of statements on “The right to healthy indoor air”, derived from fundamental principles in the fields of human rights, biomedical ethics and ecological sustainability. This document presents the conclusions of the Working Group, informs individuals and groups responsible for healthy indoor air about their rights and obligations, and individuals by bringing those rights to their attention.
Tealight Candles present health hazard due to small (nano) particles released during burning
Small-Ion and Nano-Aerosol Production During Candle Burning: Size Distribution and Concentration Profile with Time
Defining Environmentally Sustainable Building Budgets
Determining whether a building is sustainable requires a benchmark based on scientific knowledge of the earth’s carrying capacity. Environmental budgets or targets can be used to evaluate or compare building designs or performance. We propose a method for deriving targets based on global population projections through the year 2100 to allocate resource consumption and pollution emission budgets equally to all the earth’s inhabitants.
U.S Government Commits to Sustainable Buildings
At the White House Summit on Federal Sustainable Buildings on January 24, 2006, Luis A. Luna, EPA's Assistant Administrator for the Office of Administration and Resources Management, along with representatives from 16 federal agencies, signed an MOU entitled "Federal Leadership in High Performance and Sustainable Buildings."
Best Sustainable Indoor Air Quality Practices in Commercial Buildings
This paper describes commercial building indoor air quality practices and then discusses them in the context of total building environmental performance. “Green buildings” generally have included some effort to address indoor air quality issues along with an unspecified number of other environmental concerns. Rarely, if ever, is analysis conducted to evaluate trade-offs made among environmental features considered important in “green” buildings even though conflicts occur among design features intended to improve a building’s environmental performance.
Behind the Logos: Understanding Building Product Certifications - EBN article
A great review of environmental labels available for building products has been published by Environmental Building News and can be viewed on-line at their web site.
Design for Indoor Air Quality: Addressing the Global Environmental Context
Historically, indoor air quality (IAQ) deteriorated because it was largely ignored as other issues were addressed. In spite of the currently increasing recognition of worldwide environmental deterioration, there is inadequate understanding and consideration of the impacts of building design, construction, operation, and demolition on the environment.
Ozone, Filters, and SBS symptoms
If outdoor ozone levels are related to SBS symptom prevalence in a building, would it be wise to install filters to remove the ozone entering the building? If using synthetic fiber filters further increased SBS symptom prevalence as outdoor ozone levels increased, would you want to use some different material for your building's particle filters?
Building Materials and Indoor Air Quality
In, Hodgson, M. and Cone, J., eds., Problem Buildings, Building Associated Illness and Sick Building Syndrome, State of the Art Reviews in Occupational Medicine, Fall 1989.
Indoor Environmental Quality
Buildings are increasingly designed or required to be ‘sustainable’ or ‘green’ in recent years, giving the quality of the indoor environment new importance.
VOC Source Strengths in Pre- and Post-Occupancy Periods of a New California State Office Building
Volatile organic compound (VOC) source strength data are valuable for identifying and addressing important sources of potential VOC exposure in buildings. Concentration measurement data alone are insufficient for reliable assessment of occupant exposures outside of the sample collection period itself. Few published data exist with calculation of VOC source strengths in new buildings during construction and after completion.
California Indoor Air Quality Specifications for Open Office Systems Furniture and Building Materials
California has a long history of contributing to increased understanding of indoor air quality issues and the means to enhance the quality of air in buildings. This paper describes the evolution of selected IAQ activities in California.
Summary of On-Going Federal Research Into the Effects of Environmental Quality in Schools on the Health or Performance of Students and Teachers
Section 5414 of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 mandates that the U.S. Department of Education will design a national study of the health and learning impacts of environmentally unhealthy public school buildings on students and teachers. The Department of Education, in order to avoid duplication of effort and to obtain information about possible approaches for the study, wishes to investigate ongoing studies that relate to the study of unhealthy school buildings, especially those being sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
A Priority Agenda for Energy-Related Indoor Environmental Quality Research
Indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and building energy use are both strongly influenced by a building's design, construction, operation, and maintenance, by the activities of occupants, and by outdoor environmental conditions. Consequently, energy-efficiency measures may degrade IEQ, improve IEQ, or be IEQ neutral. Similarly, IEQ improvement measures may increase or decrease energy consumption or be energy neutral.
Special Environmental Requirements for a California State Office Building
A Special Environmental Requirements specification was developed for screening building materials based on modeling maximum chemical concentrations attributable to emissions from their potential sources for use in a State of California office building. In addition, minimum requirements for recycled contents of these materials were specified. Small environmental chamber emission test protocols were developed and maximum allowable concentrations for chemicals of concern were adopted.
Sustainable Building Practices in California State Buildings
The State of California, until recently, did not have a centralized, coordinated effort to define and integrate sustainable building practices in the State's capital outlay design and construction process. Efforts to define and implement these practices started in 1999, when the Legislature required the incorporation of sustainable building measures in a large state office building complex.
A Sustainable Environment Basis for Education in Indoor Air Sciences
It has become increasingly clear that human population growth and development activities have combined to place a growing, perhaps excessive burden on environmental resources. Consumption of natural resources, encroachment on land, and emission of pollutants have, together produced strong indicators of environmental stress.
Quality Indoor Environments and Sustainable Buildings -- Can We Have Them Both?
The quality of the indoor environment and the impact of the built environment on sustainability have been discussed increasingly in recent years, yet little has changed in the fundamental relationships between Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE), assessment of indoor environmental quality (IEQ), and sustainability.
Screening and Selecting Building Materials and Products Based on Their Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
The cost of emissions tests and other factors have discouraged nearly all but the largest product manufacturers from obtaining emissions data. Emissions data, where available, require toxicologic evaluation before design professionals and other potential purchasers can use them.
Physical Factors in the Indoor Environment
This chapter presents a discussion of physical factors in the nonindustrial indoor environment that affect human health, comfort, productivity, and well-being.
Critical Review of Environmental Assessment of Building Materials
Renewables in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality
Ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality is one of the key services a building provides to its occupants. Indoor air quality depends on a complicated interaction between pollutant sources in the building and key removal mechanisms such as ventilation. Renewable energy issues enter this picture through two important mechanisms: affecting pollutant sources, and providing ventilation. This overview paper is organized to address these two parts separately.
Estimating Building Material Contributions to Indoor Air Pollution
Many professionals and scientists are attempting to identify low-emitting building materials during building design. Others need to model indoor air quality (IAQ) for problem building investigations or for research. Manufacturers improve their products' performance using such modeling. These efforts focus on volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from building materials.
Building Ecology: Relation of Buildings to Environmental and Societal Issues
In the 1960s, commercial buildings became more isolated from the outdoor environment and were built and filled increasingly with synthetic materials. In the 1970s, concern for energy conservation drove ventilation rates down, and indoor air quality and climate problems proliferated.
IAQ: Whose Responsibility. The Problem is Not Energy Conservation
A popular myth holds that energy conservation measures, implemented since the oil crises of the 1970s, cause indoor air pollution problems. This myth ignores the fact that most indoor air pollutant sources have little or nothing to do with energy conservation.
Indoor Air Quality By Design
Good indoor air quality happens by design, not by accident. In fact it is simply one aspect of good design.
Building Design and Material Selection
Studies of indoor air quality (IAQ) and occupant health and comfort only identify associations of risk factors without demonstrating causality. Logical analysis and the dominant evidence point to certain root or primary risk factors. Designers can best target their IAQ control efforts based on analysis of identified risk factors and logical plausibility.
Building Design for Good Indoor Air Quality
The basic function of a building is to shelter occupants from outdoor elements and provide a healthy, comfortable environment for productive activity.
Sick Building Syndrome Review and Exploration of Causation Hypotheses and Control Methods
Control and abatement of indoor air quality (IAQ) problems are dependent upon reliable investigation and diagnosis. Sick building syndrome (SBS), building related illness (BRI), and other health and comfort problems are selectively reviewed and discussed. Psychological and social as well as physical, chemical, and biological factors that affect occupant physiological and health responses are identified.
Edifice Complex: An Anatomy of Sick Building Syndrome Control and Abatement
The complexity of modern buildings presents significant unmet challenges to designers, operators and investigators. Problems other than air quality can cause or exacerbate the symptoms of Sick Building Syndrome. Psychological and social as well as physical and biological factors interact to create occupant physiological and health responses to building environments. Yet detailed, comprehensive investigations of building-associated outbreaks are infrequent due to the resources and personnel required to conduct them.
Sunshine and Natural Ventilation, lots of it as the cure for the flu?
An article appearing in the American Journal of Public Health describes a number of approaches to dealing pandemic flu outbreaks including the devastating global pandemic of 1918, as well as some more recent ones. It praises the approaches of placing diseased patients in “open air” environments, focusing on the benefits of exposure to plentiful fresh air and sunlight, without ignoring the importance of “scrupulous standards of hygiene” and the use of reusable face masks. As the H1N1 infection spreads now, the advice is not without relevance.
California Greenhouse Gas Tool for Buildings
California Greenhouse Gas Tool for Buildings California's Greenhouse Gas (GHG) tool for California is now available on the web -GHG Tool for Buildings in California. The tool is publicly available and free for download.
Critical Review: How Well Do House Plants Perform as Indoor Air Cleaners?
JR Girman, T Phillips, and H Levin *Corresponding email:
Energy Principles in Architectural Design
General Population Exposure to Pentachlorophenol
General population exposure to pentachlorophenol (PCP) is considered universal. PCP is an ubiquitous chemical found in air, water, soil, food and house dust as well as in many consumer products. Exposure has been estimated by measurement of PCP in the various media to which people are exposed as well as by modeling based on measurement of PCP in human urine, serum and various body organs. Four recently published estimates of average population exposure are in reasonable agreement with values of 11 to 23 /μg day).
Substantial progress has been made understanding volatile organic chemical (VOC) emissions from indoor sources including building materials, furnishing, and some cleaning and maintenance products. During the past two decades, emissions from building materials and other sources have declined significantly in many developed countries. Researchers have begun to understand the potentially larger health threat posed by secondary emission, the chemicals formed by the interactions between oxidants in indoor air and chemicals on surfaces, and by hydrolysis. Many of the by-products of these interactions are more irritating, odorous, or toxic and may pose a far greater health hazard than the chemicals from which they are formed. Building materials, cleaning products, and many consumer products contain chemicals that react with oxidants to form formaldehyde and other, higher molecular weight aldehydes, acidic aerosols, and fine or ultrafine particles. Researchers have identified some of the most important indoor sources that combine with ozone (O3) at common indoor concentrations to form these secondary products. The fundamental processes and critical building material and cleaning products have been identified along with recommendations for minimizing occupant exposure to hazardous chemicals resulting from indoor air chemistry and secondary emissions. Exposure to harmful secondary emissions can be reduced to improve indoor air quality
IEQ Reserch Needs for Low Energy Residences
Summary of residential-oriented portions of a report prepared for the California Energy Commission, INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY RESEARCH ROADMAP 2012–2030: ENERGY-RELATED PRIORITIES.
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Re-Constructing Thermal Comfort
Paper submitted to Proceedings of the 9th Windsor Conference on thermal comfort: "Making comfort relevant"

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